Knowledge: cognitive or mental abilities used to retain and process information. Skills: physical abilities used to perform activities or tasks.

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Through educational and training activities, a person can acquire new knowledge, develop new skills, or form a new attitude. Typically, most training and educational programs have focused on the development of knowledge and skills, as those are the ones that are most observable and easiest to measure. Attitudes, on the other hand, are addressed the least by traditional training and educational programs because they are the most difficult for people to develop, and are the hardest to measure for results.

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Knowledge is the condition of being aware of something. It is the cognitive processing of information. It includes the recall, recognition, understanding, application, and evaluation of facts, patterns, and concepts. Knowledge can be measured with written or oral exams where a person documents or explains what they know. Knowledge of the facts and concepts form the foundation for the ability to apply the skills to perform a task or to modify an attitude.

A person would need to have a basic knowledge of the subject before developing the skill or attitude. For example, a person would need to learn the ingredients and steps involved in making cookies knowledge before they actually perform the task of making them skill.

knowledge attitude and practice theory pdf

Skills relate to the ability to physically perform an activity or task. It includes physical movement, coordination, dexterity, and the application of knowledge. Competency and proficiency in the execution of skills requires training and practice. Skills are usually learned through the transfer of knowledge. Typically, a person acquires the knowledge of how to perform a task and then begins to physically perform the task. For example, a person would typically learn the ingredients and steps involved in making cookies knowledgeand then physically make them skill.

knowledge attitude and practice theory pdf

Attitude is a way of thinking or feeling about someone or something. KASH box. Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes Learning falls into one of three categories.

These categories are often referred to as KSAs. Knowledge Skills Attitudes Knowledge: cognitive or mental abilities used to retain and process information Skills: physical abilities used to perform activities or tasks Attitudes: feelings or emotional about someone or something.Include Synonyms Include Dead terms. Peer reviewed Direct link. Research has shown that knowledge instruction alone is a poor agent for influencing changes in behavior Bruvold, ; Morrison et al.

Successful outcomes of interventions in education and performance improvement involve more than knowledge gains. Furthermore, a growing body of researchers from different areas have ventured to adopt Bloom's taxonomy of instructional objectives into a multi-construct approach to assessment that evaluates not only knowledge, but attitude and behavioral change as well.

As researchers have discovered, however, the assessment of each of these constructs is not without challenge. Issues as simple as defining each construct constitutively and as complex as reliably capturing quantitative data as indicators of the constructs have confounded much of what people know about these constructs.

In this article, the authors delineate many of these issues, provide some consistency in terms of how people communicate about these constructs, and provide guidance from the literature regarding methods of best practice when using these constructs to portray a model of outcome-based change from instructional interventions.

The knowledge, attitude, and behavior KAB approach summarized in this article is one promising method for examining changes and isolating the outcomes that will lead to instructional improvement in any arena of human performance. Contains 2 figures. Tel: ; Tel: ; Fax: ; e-mail: subinfo wiley.Chiang Rai is the northernmost province of Thailand.

Municipal solid wastes MSWs was generatedThe purpose of this paper is to explore knowledge, attitudes and practices KAP of highland residents in order to provide a basis for the development of waste management in the study area. A random sample of respondents constituted the study population. Data were gathered using a structured questionnaire.

Overall, 73 percent of respondents had high level of knowledge; 85 percent of respondents showed neutral attitude; and 59 percent of respondents performed moderate practice on MSW management. The respondents who have good knowledge also have a good level of practice; and those who have good attitude also have a good level of practice. Socio-demographic factors and suitable way to promote an effective MSW management should be considered. Laor, P. Published in the Journal of Health Research.

Published by Emerald Publishing Limited. Municipal solid wastes MSW are unwanted materials or wastes primarily generated from households and municipal services [1].

Thailand is one of the developing countries in Southeast Asia. The country has witnessed an accumulating problem of solid waste management and disposal [2]. The MSW generation rate of Thailand is at the typical range of 0.

knowledge attitude and practice theory pdf

Unfortunately, only 52 percent 7. On the other hand, about 48 percent of total volume of collected waste was appropriately disposed such as open burring and open dumping [4]. Considering with increasing population, rapid development and urbanization, providing a suitable waste management involving the health problems is a challenging task in several communities. There are the numbers of developing countries which suffer significantly from these problems because garbage collection operations do not have enough or do not occur at all [5].

The reduction of waste generation is the best and most cost-effective method to solve these problems [6]. One of the appropriate approaches to reduce waste generation is to promote MSW separation and recycling. Therefore, people play an important role in MSW management including waste generation, source separation, storage, collection, recycling and disposal.

To achieve the successfulness of MSW management, there are not only the providing infrastructures by local government, but also understanding public concerns, knowledge and behavior [6]. In addition, the public participation on source separation process strongly affects the success of household recycling programs. For a better understanding on the mechanisms responsible for resident participation in the waste management programs, there is an important need to examine and fulfill theory-based detailed surveys.

Various studies have been conducted on assessment of factors influencing these behaviors including knowledge, attitudes, and practices KAP [6]. Chiang Rai is the northernmost provinces of Thailand with the highland and lowland areas.

Furthermore, still more difficult for highland residents is the fact that MSW management includes waste separation, transportation and disposal because of the characteristic of topology high-slope areassmall roads and the limitation of disposal area, and there are local hill-tribes scattering in highland area of Chiang Rai province.Read this article to learn about the theories of Attitude are : 1.

Cognitive-Consistency Theories 2. Functional Theories 3. Social Judgment Theories!

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Though there is a frequent discontinuity between various groupings because related approaches have focused on different sets of phenomena but still such classification is valid from practical point of view. Research has generally concluded that people seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and their behaviour. This means that people seek to reconcile divergent attitudes and align their attitudes and behaviour so that they appear rational and consistent.

When there is an inconsistency, forces are initiated to return the individual to an equilibrium state where attitudes and behaviour are again consistent. This can be done by either altering the attitude or the behaviour or by developing a rationalization for the discrepancy.

The cognitive consistency theories are concerned with inconsistencies that arise between related beliefs, bits of knowledge and evaluation about an object or an issue. Though various consistency theories differ in several respects, all of them have a common object that is reducing the inconsistency and returning the individual to the equilibrium state. Heider provided the basic model of balance theory. Between these three elements two generic types of relationships are considered to exist: Sentiment relations and unit relations.

The sentiment or linking relations include all form of sentiments or effect and the unit relations express the fact that two elements are perceived as belonging together. Both sentiment relations and the unit relations can be positive and negative. In this three elements system balance exists if all three relations are positive or two relations are negative and one positive.

There will be imbalance if all three relations are negative or if two relations are positive and one is negative. People tend to perceive others and objects linked to them so that the system is balanced. This theory assumes that balanced states are stable and imbalanced states are unstable.

When imbalanced state occurs, the psychological tension which is created motivates the person to restore the balance cognitively by changing the relations. A person consistently argued that the quality of Indian cars is not up to that of the imported cars and that he would never own anything other than an imported car. His father gifts give him a latest model Maruti car. In this situation there are three elements the person, his father and the car.

To bring the balance in this situation he will either change his negative relation with the Maruti car, he can ask his father to change his attitude and give him an imported car.

Thus if that person starts saying that the Maruti car is not so bad, it means he has changed his relation and brought the balance in the situation. In an extension of balance model, Abelson has suggested four methods in which a person can resolve imbalance in cognitive structures:. In other words adding another issue in the main issue. The ordering is based on the assumption that the person will attempt the least effortful resolution first.

This theory helps in understanding the role of persuasive communication and interpersonal attractiveness in changing the attitudes. Os good and P. Tannenbaum have proposed the congruity theory of attitudes which is similar to the balance theory.

This theory focuses on the changes in the evaluation of a source and a concept that are linked by an associative or dissociative assertion. Congruity exists when a source and concept that are positively associated have exactly the same evaluations and when a source and concept that are negatively associated have exactly the opposite evaluations attached to them.

Congruity is a stable state and incongruity is an unstable one.To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Lauren Frank. The analysis focused on sexually active young men, the key demographic target audience for the program. Using structural equation modeling techniques, an initial knowledge, attitudes, and practices model is examined. Adding self-efficacy and interpersonal discussion improve this model. Not only is interpersonal discussion important, but the target others with whom that discussion occurs are also important for predicting behavioral change.

Implications for EE theory and programs are explored. Recent studies estimate that between 2 and 3. Chatterjee: jchatter usc. Frank: lfrank usc.

Murphy: smurphy usc. Chatterjee, Anurudra Bhanot, Lauren B. Frank, Sheila T. The survey also found that more men are HIV positive than women, and that the majority of cases were in younger as opposed to older individuals.

Taken together, these three parameters describe the demographic at highest risk for contracting HIV in India, namely young, urban males ibid. The main character, Jasoos Vijay, was created to appeal to the primary target audience of sexually active men between 18 and 34 years of age. This study examines the relationship between exposure to an entertainment education EE program and the processes by which it produces knowledge, attitude, and behavioral effects. This triad of measures is often referred to as the KAP model and is frequently employed to assess the impact of health care interventions.

Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice in Health Care Delivery

Traditionally, social and religious beliefs have played a strong role in keeping public discourse on issues of sexuality at a minimum. Discussion on topics such as sex, sexuality, and sexual behavior issues.

The norm of not discussing personal sexual behavior and the inability to connect personal risk to HIV are considered two barriers to initiating open and honest discussions. We especially thank the two anonymous reviewers whose comments and insights helped enhance the paper. Older relatives and extended family members are highly respected, and they routinely play gatekeeper roles on varying aspects of family and community life. Thus, it is plausible that, given the right impetus, existing interpersonal social networks could prove to be an invaluable asset in outreach to young, at-risk populations Bhattacharya, These studies point to the need to target health campaigns for men, highlighting their role as decision makers not only for their own health, but also for that of their sexual partners.

However, it is worth noting that the degree, intensity, and scope of EE effects have varied dramatically. For instance, Yoder, Hornik, and Chirwa found that controlling for other variables, simple exposure to an EE program had little impact on knowledge and behavioral change in the target population. In contrast, Valente and Saba found that while exposure to and interpersonal communication encouraged by a campaign significantly impacted knowledge and behavior, they did not impact attitudes.

The present research tests the traditional KAP model see Figure 1 for a depiction of hypothesized paths on young, sexually active male viewers2 of Jasoos Vijay. Figure 1. Hypothesized Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Model. Bandura argues that self-efficacy is one of the most important prerequisites of behavior. Prior research indicates that 2 Young, sexually active male viewers were between 18 and 34 years old and reported having engaged in sexual intercourse.

The concept of self-efficacy has been explored in EE contexts previously.Metrics details. Obtaining baseline KAP is important to note deficiencies and plan appropriate interventions.

The KAP Survey Model (Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices)

School teachers have to know about medicines as they can be an important source of information about rational and safe use of medicines. The study was done in selected schools of Lalitpur district. Teachers were selected on a voluntary basis after obtaining written informed consent. Gender, ethnic or caste group, native place, age, educational qualifications, subject taught were noted. An educational intervention using a combination of methods like presentations, brainstorming sessions, interactive discussions using posters and distribution of information leaflets about the use of medicines was conducted.

The KAP and overall scores among subgroups according to gender, age, level of education, subject, ethnicity, type of school primary vs. KAP and overall scores before and after the intervention was compared using Wilcoxon signed ranks test as the scores were not normally distributed. A total of teachers participated before and after the intervention. The median interquartile range knowledge, attitude and practice scores before the intervention were 63 1023 5 and 48 respectively while the overall score was The median knowledge, attitude and practice scores after the intervention were 71 1028 5 and 48 respectively while the overall score increased to Maximum possible score of knowledge, attitude and practice were40 and respectively.

The intervention was effective in improving knowledge and attitude of the teachers. More studies among school teachers about their knowledge, attitude and practice about medicines are required in Nepal. Peer Review reports. Almost half of all medicines globally are used irrationally. This can have severe consequences: adverse drug reactions, drug resistance, protracted illness and even death [ 1 ].

In addition, the financial cost incurred by individuals and governments due to irrational use is unnecessary and often extremely high, particularly in developing countries where patients often pay for medicines out of their own pockets [ 1 ].

Irrational use of medicines includes over-treatment of a mild illness, inadequate treatment of a serious illness, misuse of anti-infective drugs, over-use of injections, self-medication of prescription drugs and premature interruption of treatment.

Data from many countries shows that such practices are frequent, and not exclusive to developing countries [ 1 — 3 ]. Schools are considered a second home in Nepal, where students spend a large percentage of their time during childhood and adolescence. These days, students spend about seven to nine hours five or six days a week at school. The first place of learning is considered to be the home, where one is born and grows up with ones parents.

School is the second place where the child learns how to interact, behave with others and to give and accept respect; therefore it is called the second home. Schools are organizations designed to influence and promote cognitive development and behavioral change. Strong beliefs among children and adolescents in the curative power of medicines [ 4 ], their limited knowledge about prevention and the easy accessibility to household medicines raises serious concerns.

Since students spend most of their time in school with their teachers, proper education to the school teachers on the use of medicines will lead students toward a more rational and safer use of medicines.

Self-medication among adolescents has become a serious problem that plays an important role in irrational use of medication and tends to increase with the age of adolescents [ 56 ]. A study done in Kuwait among school teachers, found that teachers considered teaching their students about the proper use of medicines so important that they felt it should be included in the national curriculum of health education [ 6 ].

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Authors have consulted various reports and studies done within Nepal and outside [ 7 — 10 ] for identifying the problem areas in medicine use. A study done in Greece indicated irrational use of antibiotics and a need of exploring issues related to their use.

This study explored parents' attitudes which often contribute to inappropriate prescription of antibiotics [ 10 ]. Similarly, another study done in Poland indicated that useful educational tools implemented in primary and secondary schools could play an important role in reducing the burden of community-acquired infections.

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The resource improves knowledge about microorganisms, hygiene and antimicrobial agents, and can be targeted at pupils, teachers and parents [ 11 ]. A pre-post comparison of a community intervention in Nepal has also shown the importance and benefits of educating school teachers and their impact on students [ 12 ]. Students at schools are taught various subjects including health and environmental health and science from class eight till class ten.

Various topics taught are the human body, health and nutrition, physical education, health and physical fitness, community health and personal sanitation. Students are also given an orientation about common diseases. The information level about these topics gradually increases as the students progress through high school.To browse Academia. Skip to main content.

Log In Sign Up. Niladri Chakraborti. Kailash Chnadra Das, Associate Professor. I declare that this work has not been submitted in part or full to any university or institute for any Degree or Diploma Signature of the student Date: Name of the student I certify that the above declaration is true to the best of my knowledge and belief. According to UN declaration 28th Julysafe water and sanitation are human right.

However construction of toilet and infrastructural development for safe drinking water is not enough to ensure healthy living. Water and poor sanitation related disease burden will not be reduced until and unless proper hygiene is adopted. Top of that, operation and maintenance has to be ensured with the involvement of community.

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Hygiene, operation maintenance or community ownership are something related to human behavior B which is highly governed by existing or traditional knowledge Kattitude Aand practice P. The study will ultimately divulge the importance of KABP of the community in a poor performing area in terms of water sanitation intervention. Baidyanth Paul, Dr. I am sincerely thankful to Dr. Perhaps his mentoring is one of the important aspects which helped me to translate my dream in to reality Last but not least my wife Soumita, a development support communication expert has been remained my pillar of support throughout my tenure at IIPS, undertaking the study and finally preparing this term paper.

Sources of Data Major findings and discussion Summary and Conclusion KABP score A sample size of households was considered for this study. It was conducted from September to December Rather populations with exposure to audio visual media are more likely to have toilet at their house. Water based vector borne disease like Chikunguniya was found strongly associated with poor drainage.

Among water borne disease Dysentery was found associated with the presence of toilet at home. From the overall survey results it reflects that there is a great need for revisiting the Behavioral Change Communication strategy of govt. A community equipped with proper information and education can only adopt hygienic behavior and contribute in operation and management.

A variety of factors viz.